Navigating through the GDPR consent guidelines


Navigating the GDPR consent guidelines: a comprehensive overview

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), a key piece of European data protection legislation, has fundamentally changed the way personal data is handled on the continent. At its core, the GDPR enshrines the principle of consent and ensures that individuals have a clear, informed and unambiguous say in how their personal data is processed. This blog post explores the complex requirements of GDPR consent, guided by the clarifications of the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) and the changes to the original Article 29 Working Party guidelines.

Understanding consent under the GDPR

Consent, as set out in Article 4(11) of the GDPR, must be "freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous", without any imbalance of power that could coerce an individual into giving consent. This principle is a cornerstone of protecting the fundamental rights of individuals and granting them autonomy over their personal data. The GDPR improves on the directive that preceded it by adding more specific layers of protection, particularly in contexts where the data subject may feel compelled to give consent, such as in the employment sector or when dealing with public authorities.

The role and recommendations of the EDPB

The European Data Protection Board (EDPB), the successor to the Article 29 Working Party, plays a crucial role in interpreting GDPR rules and provides guidance to ensure harmonized application across Member States. In 2018, the EDPB approved new guidelines on consent and revised key sections to address emerging concerns such as 'cookie walls' and reaffirm the strict conditions under which consent can be considered valid.

Practical implications for those responsible

For data controllers, the guidelines specify the need to obtain consent in a way that leaves no room for doubt or coercion. This means that requests for consent must be granular so that data subjects can choose which data processing operations they consent to and must be clearly separated from other terms and conditions. The EDPB explicitly states that consent embedded in non-negotiable terms is inherently invalid.

In addition, the guidelines emphasize the importance of offering real choice to data subjects and highlight that consent should not be made a precondition for the provision of a service unless the data processing is necessary for that service. Controllers are required to demonstrate that consent was given freely and informed, a mandate that extends to demonstrating that a viable alternative was offered without detriment to the data subject.

Special considerations and exceptions

The EDPB Guidelines also address specific scenarios that require explicit consent, such as the processing of sensitive data or situations that pose a high data protection risk. Here, consent must be unambiguously clear, often requiring a written statement or a similarly clear indication of the data subject's wishes.

Consent in the digital age

In our increasingly digital world, where interactions and transactions seamlessly transition to the online web, the guidelines offer practical insights on how to obtain meaningful consent. This includes ensuring that consent mechanisms are designed to be as easily revoked as given, allowing individuals to maintain control over their personal data throughout its lifecycle.

Refreshing and revoking consent

A key aspect of the GDPR's consent mechanism is the emphasis on the dynamic nature of consent. Data subjects have the right to withdraw their consent as easily as they gave it, a provision that ensures that consent remains a genuine reflection of an individual's current wishes. Controllers must not only facilitate this process, but also cease processing operations as soon as consent is withdrawn, unless another legal basis for processing applies.


The GDPR's consent requirements represent a significant shift towards empowering individuals in the digital age and putting their rights at the forefront of data processing activities. The EDPB guidelines serve as an essential tool for both data controllers and data subjects to clarify the nuances of consent and ensure that data protection principles are applied consistently and effectively across the EU.

As technology evolves and the digital landscape expands, these policies will undoubtedly be tested and interpreted in new contexts. It is critical for companies and organizations to stay informed and adaptable to navigate the complexities of GDPR compliance and ensure that the rights of data subjects are upheld in an ever-changing world.

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